Learning About the Southwest Frontier with American Girl Josefina: Part1 – The Colonization of New Mexico and Dia de Los Muertos

Josefina was a girl in the Southwest Frontier in 1824. Josefina lived in New Mexico, which was part of Mexico at that time and included modern-day New Mexico and northwest Texas.

History of New Mexico

You can use the following script with the visuals below. Glue the images to popsicle sticks and have the children hold the pictures up when they are mentioned in the script (the words in bold correspond with the pictures).

In the early 1500s, about three hundred years before Josefina would have lived, Spanish explorers came to Mexico and claimed it as a colony of Spain. A conquistador, or conqueror, named Hernan Cortes was one of the first to do this. He conquered the Aztec people of Mexico and took over its huge empire. This was a sad time in Mexico because as Spanish conquistadores continued to conquer and colonize Mexico, they mistreated and enslaved the native people. They also brought with them diseases that wiped out many of the natives. This made them easier to conquer and control. The Spanish were growing wealthy and powerful from the abundant gold and silver in this new land and so they continued to colonize it.

In the late 1500s, the Spanish heard a rumor that there were seven cities of gold in northern lands, and conquistadores began searching for them. That northern land came to be called “New Mexico.” Gold was not found there, but there was unsettled land. So many Mexican and Spanish people who were eager for a chance to own land traveled to New Mexico to settle on land of their own. Catholic priests also came and built missions with the aim of bringing their faith to the Native Americans there called the Pueblo people. At first, the Spanish treated the Pueblo people badly – they forced them to work for them and punished them severely if they refused. But eventually, the Spanish, Mexican, and Pueblo people learned to live together as neighbors.

The Spanish settlers began to make Mexico their home, and new generations of Spanish were born and raised there. Some of them married native people, like the Pueblo and Aztecs. But there was trouble in the colonies. The Spanish people who were born in Spain, who called themselves peninsulares considered themselves to be in a higher class than Spanish people who were Mexican born, who were called criollos. The children of Spanish people who married natives, called mestizos, were considered lower in class that those of purely Spanish descent. Lower still were the Aztecs, Pueblos, and other native people and people of African descent. The colonists who were born in Spain, the Peninsulares, had the most rights and privilege. The natives and Africans had the fewest rights and privileges. Mestizos were in the middle. Mestizos were quickly becoming the largest part of the population of Mexico, however, and there was unrest among the mestizos and natives because of oppression by the Peninsulares. Eventually that unrest led to uprising and war. The Mexican War for Independence lasted for years and years, and at first, seemed doomed to fail. But after 11 long years of fighting, Mexico finally gained independence from Spain in 1821. Mexico was now its own country! Josefina would have been 6 years-old at that time.

Dia de Los Muertos

Because of the mixture of people in New Mexico, Josefina’s culture was also a mixture of different traditions and beliefs. We can see this mixture in the Mexican holiday Dia de los Muertos. Dia de los Muertos grew out of an ancient Aztec ritual that celebrated the lives of the dead. When the Spanish conquered Mexico they tried to end the practice, but when that failed, they morphed the holiday into a Christian one by merging it with All Saints Day and All Souls Day.

Dia de los Muertos is a time of reunion between the living and family members and loved ones who have passed on. The first day of the celebration, November 1, is the day when the spirits of children are allowed to reunite with their families. On November 2, adult spirits are allowed to do so. Family members make altars of candles and incense to guide the spirits of their loved ones to them, and they leave out their loved ones’ favorite foods and treats. Pan de Muertos is a favorite traditional food this is eaten during Dia de los Muertos.

Eat Some Pan de Muerto!

Pan de Muerto is easy to make, but you can also find it ready made at the grocery store around November 1 and 2 in some places. I found some at Walmart in my area! Our local grocery store (HEB) bakery also said they were making some for the occasion, but they weren’t putting it out until November 1. Pan de Muerto is a sweet bread that is glazed with citrus and sugar. It is very tasty!

Make a Dia de los Muertos Altar!

Dis de los Muertos altar

My altar was super simple, but you get the idea. You can start with candles and incense, then add photos, marigolds (another commonly used item for Dia de los Muertos also thought to guide the spirits), sugar skulls, and other decorations.

Mexicans also decorate both the altars and their loved ones’ graves with photos, flowers, and other decorations. Sugar skulls are often used as decorations. Family members will write the name of their deceased loved one on a skull and decorate it elaborately. Small skulls are used for children, large ones for adults. The skulls are for decoration only, not for eating, though other candy skulls are made of chocolate or sugar that are meant to be eaten. You might wonder, like I did (and like my children are right now as they stare at huge masses of sugar shaped as skulls and smelling liking marshmallows), why in the world the skulls would be made out of sugar if they weren’t meant for eating. The answer is tradition. It started in the 1600s when Italian missionaries visited Mexico. The colonists were very poor at the time, but they had an abundance of sugar, and the Italian missionaries taught them how to make decorations out of it. They would make molds out of clay and mold the sugar into shapes. And thus, the sugar skull was born!

Make Sugar Skulls for Dia de los Muertos

Sugar skulls are very simple to make. All you need is:

  • a skull mold
  • white sugar (a little more than 1/2 c. for one side of a medium skull)
  • merengue powder (1 tsp. per cup of sugar)
  • water


Measure in the amount of sugar you need (you will need a little more than 1/2 c. for the front of one medium skull. If you plan to make the back side too, you’ll probably need a full cup).

Add 1 tsp of merengue powder for each cup of sugar. Mix. Now sprinkle water over the mixture. Start with 1 tsp of water per cup of sugar. You might need to add more. Mix the water in with your hands for a few minutes.

The sugar mixture needs to feel like damp beach sand and hold together fairly well in your hand. It’s going to need to come out of the skull mold intact and it will crumble if it is too dry. You also don’t want it too wet, though, so add more water as needed, but just a teaspoon at a time and mix very well between additions. I had to add more than 2 tsp/ cup of sugar when I made these skulls, so don’t be surprised if you need more water. When the sugar seems to be holding together pretty well and feels like damp beach sand, pack it into the mold. scrape off any excess with a butter knife or spatula, then pack it again.

Carefully and gently turn it out onto a covered pan. Let it dry for a day or two before decorating. If you made a back and front to the skull, glue them together with royal icing once they are dry.

Now, you can decorate your skulls! You can decorate them however you would like – you can use beads, sequins, feathers, colored foil, etc.. Make and color some royal icing to decorate your skull and “glue” on your other decorations. The royal icing will harden very quickly and will be very very hard in 24 hours of so. Your skulls will keep for years if you want to reuse them!

Feliz Dia de los Muertos!

A Christ-Centered Family Easter Tradition

Have you ever noticed how Christmas is a really BIG holiday, but Easter, not so much? At least in the U.S.. I know other countries and cultures have some really cool Easter traditions that help them focus on Christ, but here it seems kind of neglected to me.

A couple of years back I decided I wanted to figure out how to make our family’s Easter celebration a meaningful experience that helps us focus on the Lord, worship Him, and draw nearer to Him. So we developed a tradition that is kind of like an Easter advent. We start it three weeks before Easter and finish on Easter Sunday. It’s been a really great experience for all of us. The kids like it, and it gives us all an opportunity to focus on the Savior.

So this is what we do. We framed 21 pictures of Jesus, one for each day for three weeks. The pictures represent different stories and events from His life – His miracles, the example He set, and His sacrifice.

Eight of the pictures represent events from the last week of His life (those are the pictures in the lower photo). On the back of each of these pictures, I have written the scripture reference for the story.

Starting three weeks before Easter, each day we take turns choosing one of the pictures and putting them up for display. The person whose turn it is gets to tell the story and why they like it, what it means to them, or why they think it is important, and what the story teaches us about Jesus. Then they put the picture up, and we read the verses that go with the story. We save the eight pictures from the last week of Christ’s life for the eight days before Easter. We do all of this in place of our regular family scripture study, so it doesn’t really take any extra time. It takes a little effort and time to gather the pictures and frame them, but after that, it’s ready to go year after year!

This has been such a nice way for our family to celebrate Easter. It really has helped us focus on the true meaning of the holiday.

If doing this for 21 days seems overwhelming to you, I think a condensed version of one week or even a few days would still be really meaningful.

You can get lots of free printable pictures of the Savior here. And Goodwill or another local thrift store is a great place to find inexpensive frames.

Happy Easter!

Candy-Free Easter! Ideas for a Non-Food Easter Egg Hunt

In our family, we try to keep our celebration of Easter focused on Christ, but we still enjoy a good Easter egg hunt on Easter morning! When I was growing up, the Easter Bunny brought us those little foil-covered chocolate eggs, jelly beans, sometimes Peeps or chocolate bunnies, and maybe even a Cadbury egg. I think that was pretty standard. But with food allergies and other food related issues on the rise, what’s an Easter Bunny to do? In our household, we have multiple food allergies, food intolerances and sensitivities, celiac disease, and type 1 diabetes, so the Easter Bunny has had to get pretty creative with non-food items to stuff those eggs with! For all you Easter Bunnies out there who are in the same boat, or who are just trying to reduce sugar intake, let me share some ideas with you!

The Easter egg stuffer that has been the biggest hit in our home is Legos! You can take some plastic eggs and a small set of Legos, like a Lego Friends set, this Lego Creator Dino, or this Star Wars set, and put just a couple of Lego pieces in each egg. If you are doing an Easter egg hunt and there are multiple children hunting for eggs, the key to making this work is color-coding the eggs. Choose one or two colors for each child and plant one in their basket so they know which color they are going for. You can even hide the box in one of these giant Easter eggs for extra fun!

Another thing that our children have enjoyed finding in their eggs is a puzzle. Put a few pieces in each egg and again, color code the eggs. You might need a lot of plastic eggs for this, depending on the size of the puzzle.

Some other popular Easter egg surprises have been:

  • nail polish (I really like Piggy Paint because it’s non-toxic and not smelly)

  • bracelets

  • rings

  • earrings (my daughters liked these clip-on ones)

  • erasers

  • necklaces

  • fun socks

  • stickers

  • cars

  • hair bows

  • small plastic animals

  • finger puppets

  • tiny stuffed animals

  • a tie

  • a small bottle of bubbles

  • bouncy balls

  • marbles

For all of these items, color-coding the eggs is very helpful so the items go to the intended child. I hope some of these ideas help you! Happy Easter!

Gingerbread Oat Pancakes – Gluten Free and Dairy Free!

My husband was diagnosed with celiac disease about 14 years ago, so I’ve been making gluten-free food for almost a decade and a half now. I’ve met some gluten-free pancake recipes and mixes that come out fluffy, soft, and delicious, but I haven’t met many that are made with nutrient dense, whole-food ingredients and without funky things like binders and gums and STILL turn out like a real pancake. But these Gingerbread Pancakes are wholesome through and through and tasty as can be. They have a mild gingerbread flavor that pairs deliciously with pure maple syrup. All of my kids, and my husband and I love them. They are fluffy and filling and packed with nutrition. I soak part of the batter overnight so they are extra digestible and easy on the tummy too! I hope you enjoy them as much as we do!

This is how to make them:

Start by grinding 5 cups of rolled or quick oats into a coarse flour. You can use any gluten-free oats, but I really like One Degree Organic Sprouted Oats because they are gluten-free, organic, and the sprouting helps maximize digestibility and unlock all the wonderful nutrients found in oats. I grind the oats about 2.5 cups at a time in my VitaMix. You can also use a Blendtec, a grain mill, or your food processor to do this. Transfer the oat flour to a large bowl.

Add 1 1/2 tsp of salt and mix, then add 1 tbsp of lemon juice, and 3 cups of water. Mix it well and then cover. Let it soak overnight (this is optional, but I recommend it for optimal digestibility and availability of nutrients!). The oats will soak the water up really well and the batter will be pretty thick in the morning.

In the morning, sprinkle 1 tsp each of baking soda, cinnamon, and ginger over the top of the batter. This step is important because you might otherwise get clumps of those ingredients stuck in your batter and no one likes a mouth full of baking soda!

Mix the baking soda and spices in really well. Next add 4 beaten eggs, 1/2 cup of melted coconut oil (you can also use olive oil), and 1/4 cup of molasses to the batter and mix them in until everything is well-incorporated.

Your batter should be fairly thick, thicker than a normal pancake batter, but still really easy to spread. Scoop big spoonfuls onto a hot, lightly greased griddle. I set my griddle to between 325-350 degree for these. Flip the pancakes when the top is looking pretty bubbly and dry around the edges. Don’t flip too soon or you will have a mess!

 The pancakes should look something like this when they are ready to flip. The pancakes should look something like this when they are ready to flip.

Cook the other side for about a minute or until they lightly browned, and then they are done! Serve them hot with pure maple syrup.

Gluten Free and Dairy Free Gingerbread Pancakes


5 c. gluten-free rolled or quick oats

1 1/2 tsp salt

1 tsp baking soda

1 tsp cinnamon

1 tsp ginger

3 c. water (you can also use milk if dairy isn’t a problem)

1 tbsp lemon juice

1/2 c. melted coconut oil or olive oil (you can also use butter if dairy isn’t a problem)

1/2 c. molasses

4 eggs, beaten

Grind the oats into a course oat flour. In a large bowl, mix the oat flour and salt. Stir in water and lemon juice and cover. Let the oats mixture soak overnight. If the batter is too thick after it has soaked (as in almost solid and very hard to stir) add a little water.

In the morning, sprinkle the baking soda and spices over the top of the batter. Mix well. Add the remaining ingredients and mix well.

Cook the pancakes on a hot oiled griddle, between 325-350 degrees. Flip when the pancakes are very bubbly on top and very dry around the edges. Cook the other side for about a minute or until they are lightly browned, and then they are done!

Serve hot with pure maple syrup.

Chemistry for Kids: Hands-on Activities for Learning About the Chemical and Physical changes

Young chemists love to make things happen and what better way than through physical changes and chemical reactions! Let’s get started!

What is a Physical Change

A physical change is any change to a substance that does not alter its chemical composition. An example of a physical change is a state change – when matter changes from a solid to liquid, or liquid to gas, or vice versa. This is a physical change because the substance stays the same, it is just in a different form. In other words, ice, water, and steam are all H2O, just in different forms. 

Another kind of physical change is a mixture. A mixture is when you combine two or more substances that do not react with each other chemically – they do not change their chemical structure. The substances combined each retain their own identity. Salt water is one example where it is easy to see that two substances are mixed together but do not change their identities.

Try mixing 1/2 tsp of salt in a cup full of water, and 1/2 tsp of sugar in another cup of water. What happens to the sugar and salt? Can you still see it? Is it still there? Try tasting the solutions. Can you tell that the sugar and salt are still there? Is there any way to get the sugar or salt out of the water again? How? Try boiling the the salt water in a pot until the water is all gone. What happened? The salt is still there! That is because in the solution, the water remained water and the salt remained salt, they were simply mixed together. That is a physical change.

What is a Chemical Reaction?

A chemical reaction, also called a chemical change, is when matter changes chemically and a new substance is formed.  The atoms or molecules in the matter are rearranging to create something different from what was originally present. Usually this change is not reversible and usually there is evidence of a chemical change in the form of heat, light, fire, bubbling, odor, a color change, formation of a gas, or formation of a solid. Let’s take a closer look.

Heat, Fire, Light, Odor

Light a candle. What do you observe? What kind of a change is taking place? If you guessed a chemical or physical change, you are right! Both changes are taking place. The wax on the candle is melting, which is a physical change. There is also fire, light, heat, and an odor, which are clues that a chemical change is taking place.

Formation of a Gas

This is a simple experiment, but it is a really fun one too!

You will need:

  • about 1 tsp. of baking soda

  • a funnel

  • an empty water or soda bottle, rinsed out

  • about 1/4 cup of vinegar

  • 1 eight inch balloon

Put the funnel in the end of the balloon and carefully pour the baking soda in. Pour the vinegar into the bottle. Take the balloon and pick the end so the baking soda stays in the bottom of the balloon. Carefully stretch the balloon over the opening of the bottle, being careful not to let the baking soda fall in. Now, hold the balloon up and let the baking soda fall in. Watch what happens! The balloon quickly inflates. Why? The vinegar and baking soda created a chemical reaction! The chemical reaction produced carbon dioxide gas which inflated the balloon. So we see how a chemical reaction can form a gas.

Change in Color

For the next activity you will need:

  • cornstarch

  • providing iodine (you can find this at any drugstore)

  • an eye dropper or pipette

  • a vitamin C tablet, crushed and mixed in 1/4 cup of water

Scoop a small amount of cornstarch onto a paper plate. Mix a few drops of iodine in a cup of water. Now, use your pipette or eye dropper to drop a drop or two of your iodine solution onto the cornstarch. What happens? It turns dark purple or blue! How does that happen? It is a chemical reaction between the iodine and starch molecules.

Now, scoop a little of the starch into your cup of iodine solution. Did it turn a dark color? If not, add some more starch. When your solution is dark, drop a few drops of your vitamin C solution into the cup. What happened? It turned light again! This is another chemical reaction. The vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, reduces the iodine to iodide so the starch returns to its normal color.

Formation of a Solid

Make Rubber Ball

You will need:

  • 1/2 tsp borax

  • 1 tbsp glue

  • 1 tbsp cornstarch

  • water

  • a paper or plastic cup

-Mix 2 Tbsp warm water and 1/2 tsp borax in a cup, stir until dissolved

-In another cup mix 1 Tbsp glue + 1/2 tsp borax solution. Add 1 tbsp cornstarch and let sit for 15 seconds

-Stir until fully mixed, then when you can no longer stir it, take it out and form a bouncy ball. Try bouncing it on the floor. You have formed a solid through a chemical reaction between glue and borax! Keep your new bouncy ball in a plastic bag until you are ready to play with it again.

Which one was a chemical change? 

In some reactions, it can be hard to tell if a physical change or a chemical change has taken place because they can look a lot alike. In this activity, we will compare two similar reactions and see if we can figure out which one is a chemical change.

Reaction #1 Soda and Mentos

You will need:

  • 2 liter diet soda of any kind

  • 1 roll of Mentos mint flavor

  • hot glue gun and glue


Open the roll of mentos and glue each individual mint together with hot glue into one tall tower. Set the soda and Mentos tower aside while you prepare the second reaction.

Reaction #2 Elephant Toothpaste

You will need:

  • 1/2 cup of hydrogen peroxide

  • one squirt of dishsoap

  • one packet of yeast

  • warm water

  • one empty 16 oz. soda bottle or water bottle


Pour 1/2 c. hydrogen peroxide into the empty bottle. Add a squirt or two of dish soap and swirl the bottle to mix it into the hydrogen peroxide. In a cup, mix 1/4 cup of very warm water and the package of yeast.

Now that both reactions are prepared, take your bottles, Mentos, and cup of yeast outside or to another place that’s easy to clean – this will make a mess! Now, put your Mentos tower in the soda bottle and watch what happens. When it stops bubbling, pour your cup of yeast into the bottle of hydrogen peroxide and dish soap. What happens? Check both reactions for signs of a chemical reaction. What did you observe? Make sure to get a good look at, smell, touch each substance that comes out of the bottles.

While both reactions bubble and almost explode in a similar way, only the elephant toothpaste is a chemical reaction. How can you tell? It created heat! While the soda and Mentos appeared to create a gas, the Mentos were really only helping the carbon dioxide already in the soda to escape, much like when you shake a can of soda and then open it.

Chemistry for Kids: Hands-on Activities for Learning About the pH Scale

In chemistry, we often talk about the pH of various substances, but what exactly does that mean? Let’s find out!

What is the pH Scale?

pH stands for potential for hydrogen. Look at hydrogen on the periodic table. How many protons does it have? How many electrons? Look at a diagram of hydrogen. What do you remember about what atoms like to do with their orbitals? They like to fill the outer ones (called valence shells) up or empty them. Since hydrogen only has one electron, it is a pretty reactive atom! It likes to give an electron or get one, and thereby bond with many different atoms. Potential for hydrogen, or pH, refers to what is happening to hydrogen in a compound.

The pH scale is a scale from 0-14. 7 on the pH scale is neutral. Water has a pH of 7. Anything lower than 7 is acidic – the acidity gets higher as the number gets lower. Anything greater than 7 is a base or alkaline and its alkalinity gets higher as the numbers get higher. 

Acids like to give away hydrogen ions. They are sour and they react with metals, so they are corrosive. Acids can also be damaging to living tissue. Bases like to collect hydrogen ions. They are bitter and slippery. They are good at dissolving fats. Because of this, most soaps are basic. A strong base can also be damaging to living tissue.

Let’s do an activity to become familiar with the pH of everyday substances.

Mystery Liquids

For this activity you will need:

  • 8-10 small cups for each child who will do the activity

  • litmus paper

  • 8-10 different liquids ranging in acidity and alkalinity

  • a sheet of paper to keep track of your results

Number 8-10 small plastic cups. Gather an assortment of acidic and basic liquids. Some liquids you might use are: tomato juice, soda, orange juice, baking soda water, lemon juice, vinegar, milk of magnesia, dish soap (thin it slightly with water), hand soap (thin it slightly with water), and glass cleaner. Make sure to include water in your assortment. Fill each cup halfway with one of the liquids. Be sure to keep a numbered list so that you know what liquid is in which cup.

Have the children test the pH of each liquid with the end of a litmus strip. Compare the color on the strip to the pH scale that comes with your litmus strips. Which of the liquids is the most acidic? Which is the most basic? Can you guess what each of the liquids is? Have the children record their results!

Chemistry for Kids: Hands-on Activities for Learning About Compounds, Polymers, and Crystals

Today we are going to learn about compounds! When different atoms join together they form a compound. Compounds can range from a simple molecule to more complex structures, such as polymers and crystals.

Let’s investigate what some simple compounds look like.

Molecule Match

In this activity, we will build molecules and match them to their chemical formula and name in order to help us become familiar with some different molecular shapes and molecular formulas.

Use a molecule building kit such as Molymod or the Molecular Student Set . Snatoms would also work well and they look really fun, but they are more pricey. Print some pictures of molecules online or draw your own.

On small pieces of paper or notecards, write the names of the molecules and their chemical formulas. Make a key card with the name of each atom, its symbol, and model color.

Now put the pictures of molecules in one stack and lay the name/formula cards out so they can all be seen at once. Have the children build each molecule with the building kit, then match the molecule with its name and formula.

Now let’s talk about some different ways molecules and atoms can combine to form more complex structures.


Give the children a simple crocheted chain or yarn, or something similar (you can find easy instructions for hand-crocheting a chain online). The children can make the chains themselves, or you can pre-make them. Direct the children to notice how even though the yarn itself is not stretchy, the chain can stretch, twist, and bend, and then return to its normal shape.

Polymers are like this. A polymer is a compound in which the molecules are arranged in a repeating pattern that is like a chain. Because of this, polymers are resilient, they tend to be flexible, and they are sometimes stretchy and pliable. Can you guess what things around you might be polymers? Rubber, wool, cotton, silk, and spider silk are examples of polymers. Cellulose, which is found in plants and in wood, is a polymer. Can you guess what things on your body are polymers? Your hair, nails, muscles, organs, and skin contain polymers, and your DNA is a polymer! That’s right – the chains that make up your DNA and RNA are actually polymers! Polymers are found abundantly in nature, and they are also manmade, such as plastic and manmade fabric such as polyester and rayon.

Let’s make a polymer!

This is what you need:

  • 4 oz of school glue (this is a regular sized bottle of glue)

  • 3/4 c. warm water

  • 1 tsp borax mixed into 1/4 c. of water

  • food coloring (optional)

In a small bowl, mix the glue and 3/4 c. water. Add the food coloring, and then add your borax solution a little at a time until your polymer begins to take shape. Once it begins to take shape, take it out and knead it together until you have a stretchy, slimy goo! This recipe will give you a pretty viscous polymer that is a little bit stretchy. You can reduce the amount of borax to make a more slimy goo that is more stretchy.

Play with your polymer and observe its qualities. What can you make it do?


Crystals have a different molecular arrangement. A crystal is a solid that is formed when atoms or molecules are arranged in a repeating pattern that is three- dimensional. Some elements that form crystals are: carbon, silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, and calcium. Some compounds that form crystals are salt, sugar, and water. 

Take a look at some sugar and salt crystals through a microscope. What do they look like? Draw a picture!

 We used an  Amscope  to look at salt and sugar crystals.
We used an Amscope to look at salt and sugar crystals.

Let’s make a model of a salt crystal!

NaCl, which is sodium chloride, or table salt, is a cubic crystal that alternates atoms of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl). Take toothpicks and two colors of marshmallows and build one!

Notice that in our NaCl model, we made sure to alternate two colors – one to stand for sodium, and one to stand for chloride. A marshmallow is not adjacent to the same color marshmallow in any direction, because in sodium chloride, a sodium atom is not adjacent to another sodium atom, and the same is true for chloride. They alternate because they have ionic bonds.

Hot Ice

This is a super fun activity in which you can watch crystals appear before your eyes! This is how it works: create a super-saturated solution of sodium acetate by dissolving a lot of sodium acetate in a small amount of water by heating it up. Allow the solution to cool, then add a single crystal of sodium acetate and watch the crystals form like magic! This works because the solution is super saturated, so it is very unstable. The crystals are eager to come out of the solution, so when given a nucleation site (a crystal to build on) they immediately form on top of it.

Here are the instructions for forming the solution:

Hot Ice Instructions

  • scoop 160 grams of sodium acetate into a glass jar or container (I used this kind) (if you don’t have a scale that measures grams, this is slightly less than 1 cup – I would say a scant 1 cup)

  • pour 30 mL of water into the jar

  • Microwave in increments until the sodium acetate is completely dissolved and you see no more particles (start with 2 minutes and add 1 minute or 30 seconds at a time after that, depending on how much solid matter is still in the solution).

  • When all of the sodium acetate is dissolved, cover the jar and let the solution cool to room temperature. Do NOT pour the solution out of the jar until you are ready to use it. Try not to disturb the jar either – you might begin the crystallization process before you are ready. Should your solution crystalize before you are ready to use it, just add a tiny bit of water (about 1/4 tsp) and heat it up again until it is completely melted.

  • Once your solution has cooled, you can do one of several things:

    You can place a crystal of sodium acetate on a plate and slowly pour your solution on top of it. Watch a crystal tower form before your eyes! Be sure to notice the heat that it gives off as it crystalizes. This is called an exothermic process, because the formation of the crystals gives off heat.

You can also drop a crystal into your jar and watch as crystals fan out from the nucleation site until all of the solution is crystalized. You can also start this process with a spoon or even by shaking the jar a little.

You can reuse your sodium acetate solution over and over! Just melt it down again in a clean jar. Microwave it in increments until it is completely liquid. Start with 1 minute and go from there. You might need to add a tiny bit of water – 1/4 to 1/2 tsp. before you microwave it. But don’t add too much or your solution will not be saturated enough to form your crystals.

Note: you can find instructions for creating the sodium acetate solution using baking soda and vinegar, but I do not recommend trying to do it that way. It is difficult to get it right and it will make your house smell terrible and your eyes burn because you have to boil it for so long (speaking from experience!).

Also – you can divide this recipe in half or in thirds and it still works just as well. The amount that the recipe makes will give you a good sized crystal tower. I recommend dividing the water and sodium acetate into a few jars (do this before you heat it) so you can try forming the crystals in a few different ways.

Have fun and let me know how it works!

Chemistry for Kids: Hands on Activities for Learning About Atoms and Molecules

As a homeschooling mom, I think hands on activities make learning science so much more interesting and fun. I also think they help children to understand science in a more concrete way. Things like atoms and molecules are pretty hard for a young child to comprehend without something tangible to relate to. In this post, and in a series of posts that will follow, I want to share with you some ideas for teaching elementary and middle school aged children about chemistry.

Let’s start with atoms and molecules.

What is an atom?

Atoms are tiny tiny particles that make up all matter. You can’t see them – in fact, they are so tiny that millions and millions of them can fit in the point of the very sharpest pencil. But eveything around us is made of millions and millions of atoms – our bodies, our homes, our pets, the trees, even the air we breathe! To help make this concept more concrete, take a look through a magnifying glass at an image in a book or a picture printed from your computer. This will work best with a magnifying glass that magnifies at 4X or higher.

What do you see? Can you see that the picture is made from many many tiny dots? When you look at the picture with just your eyes, you don’t see the dots, but the picture is really just a whole lot of tiny dots of color put together. Atoms are like this – only even smaller!

The Human Atom

This is a fun activity for a group of children. You build a model of an atom using people as the subatomic particles. You need one notecard for each child in the group. Divide the notecards into three equal groups (roughly) and write a minus sign on the notecards in one group, a plus sign on the second group of notecards, and a zero on the third group of notecards.

Give one notecard to each child in the group and explain that the protons are positive and they are found in the center of the atom, which is called the nucleus. The neutrons are neutral and also found in the nucleus. Protons and neutrons are roughly the same size and they are the largest of the three main subatomic particles. Have all the children with + or 0 cards form a group in the center of the room. If you are working with a multi-age group, give the smallest of the children the – cards and explain that electrons are negatively charged and they are the smallest of these three subatomic particles. Then have the “electrons” run around the nucleus, explaining how the electrons move around the nucleus in orbitals.

Build a Model of an Atom

This activity is good for explaining several concepts about atoms. This model follows the Niels Bohr model of an atom. You can make the framework for the model by tracing circles onto a clear placemat or cutting board. Whatever you use, it needs to be fairly thin. For beginning chemists, I recommend working with just two orbitals at first. The location of electrons in orbitals after the second orbital gets complicated, so keep it simple for beginners. Lay strips of double-sided tape in the middle of the circles. This will be the location of the nucleus of the atom.

Have your child or children take a look at the periodic table (I really like this placemat version because of its durability). Notice the atomic number above the name of each of the elements.

The atomic number tells you how many protons are in the nucleus of the atom. This is an atom’s identity. No other kind of atom will have that number of protons. For example, any atom that has just one proton is hydrogen. The atomic number for hydrogen is 1. Select an atom (choose one with an atomic number of ten or less since we are only dealing with two orbitals). Look at its atomic number. For our example we will use carbon. Carbon has an atomic number of 6 which means it has 6 protons in its nucleus. Take 6 tokens labeled with + (I used bingo tokens for this) and stick them to the double stick tape in the center of your atom (if you want to get fancy you can also use removable poster dots to stick your protons on).

Usually, there are about the same number of neutrons as protons in an atom. Carbon has 6 neutrons, so place 6 tokens labeled with 0 in the nucleus of the atom.

An atom in its neutral form will have the same number of electrons as protons. So carbon has six electrons, which we will represent with tiny magnets labeled with a minus sign. The tiny magnets are to remind us that electrons are much smaller than protons and neutrons. Place a second magnet underneath the mat behind each “electron” magnet to hold the “electrons” on. Younger children (6-7 or younger) might have a hard time manipulating the tiny magnets, so if you are working with younger children I recommend using brads instead of magnets. You will have to make some holes in your orbitals so you can stick the brads through.

Now its time to talk about orbitals! The first orbital can only hold two electrons. The second orbital can hold eight electrons. The inner orbital has to be filled before any electrons can go to the second orbital. The outer orbital of an atom is called its valence shell. Atoms are kind of particular in the way they like their valence shell to be. They are kind of all-or-nothing characters – they either like their valence shell to be completely full or completely empty. And they will give away, receive, or share electrons in order to get their valence shell closer to full or empty, which is how atoms bond together. We can show this by building two different atoms and “bonding” them together with our magnet or brad electrons.

Here we have carbon and oxygen. When they bond, they share 6 electrons in order to achieve a full eight electrons in their valence shells. This is called a covalent bond (co for together (sharing) and valent for valence electrons).

You can also use this model to represent an ionic bond. In an ionic bond, an atom donates an electron to another atom, creating one atom with a positive charge (the electron donor) and one atom with a negative charge (the atom that received the extra electron). The atoms have become ions, and because they are now charged they are attracted to each other. You can demonstrate this with a sodium fluoride molecule. Sodium (Na) has 11 electrons, and fluorine (F) has 9 electrons, so sodium gives one electron to fluorine giving them both a valence shell with eight electrons, which makes the valence shell full and the atoms happy!

 Positively charged sodium is on the left, negatively charged fluoride is on the right
Positively charged sodium is on the left, negatively charged fluoride is on the right

Build sodium and fluorine and move one “electron” magnet from sodium to fluorine. Sodium is now positive because it has more positive protons than negative electrons, and fluorine has become a negative ion (fluoride) because it now has more negatively charged electrons than positively charged protons. Like magnets, the oppositely charged atoms are attracted to each other and bond together to form a molecule of sodium fluoride (NaF).

I did these activities with my own children (ages 6-12) and a group of homeschool children in that same range, and I was really impressed with how much information about atoms they were able to understand and retain. I hope your children enjoy these activities too!

Overnight Pumpkin Baked Oatmeal: How to make your family a nourishing whole-food breakfast – in your sleep!

It’s really important to me to feed my family healthy nourishing foods. But making a healthy whole-food breakfast every morning can really be a challenge! I’m going to share with you my favorite way to feed my family a nutrient dense breakfast. It’s fast and easy – so easy, in fact, that you can do it in your sleep!

Imagine waking up in the morning to the smell of oatmeal baking knowing that you have a hot breakfast waiting for you. There is an under-used feature on most ovens that can make this happen. On my Frigidaire oven it is labeled Start Time. If you have never used Start Time, you should try it! It starts your oven at a specified time, so you can leave a dish in the oven overnight and set Start Time to bake your breakfast in the morning before you wake up (this is only for a dish that is ok to leave unrefrigerated, of course). You can also put a frozen meal in the oven before leaving home and set Start Time so lunch or dinner will be ready and waiting when you get back. This feature varies between ovens, so read your manual to find out how to do it.

I use Start Time regularly to prepare a hot breakfast for my family. I mix up my baked oatmeal recipe in the evening (I will share it with you at the end of this post), which takes about 10 minutes, grease a pan and pour the batter in, and put the pan in the oven. I then push Start Time and set the time for about 50 minutes before I plan to get up in the morning. Then I set the temperature to 350 degrees. The oven will turn on and warm to 350 at the set time, and I get to go to bed knowing that my family will have a delicious, hot, healthy breakfast ready and waiting when we wake up!

My Overnight Baked Oatmeal recipe is made from whole-food, it is allergy friendly because it is gluten-free, dairy-free, soy-free, and corn-free, and it is very nutrient dense! I like to use One Degree Organic oats because they are gluten-free and they are sprouted, which makes them more digestible and makes it easier for us to absorb their nutrients. The baked oatmeal is also soaked overnight, which makes the oats even easier on the digestion! You can find these oats on Amazon, but you might find them for a better price at your local health-food store, so check for them there. This recipe is incredibly versatile so you can flavor it any way you like. I’ve made so many versions of it -I’ve flavored it with pumpkin, banana, winter squash, dates, cranberries, raisins, and more! I have even hidden pureed beets in it (but shhh! don’t tell my kids!)

Overnight Pumpkin Baked Oatmeal

Serves 6


3 c. of rolled oats or quick oats (both work but they will yield different textures)

1 tsp. salt

1/2 tsp. baking soda

1 tsp cinnamon

1/2 tsp. ginger

1/2 c. melted coconut oil or butter (you can also use olive oil, but I think the results are better with coconut oil or butter)

1 c. water, add more if the batter seems too dry (you can also use milk, almond milk, or coconut milk, BUT if you are leaving this at room temperature overnight, raw milk is fine, but do NOT use pasteurized cow’s milk)

1/2 c. maple syrup

1/2 c. blackstrap molasses

3 eggs

1 tbsp. lemon juice

1 c. pureed pumpkin (you can also use pureed winter squash, 2 mashed bananas, dried cranberries, chopped dates, or raisins)

1 tsp. vanilla

Set oven to Start Time 50 minutes before you would like breakfast to be ready. Set temperature to 350 degrees. Grease an 8×8 baking dish.

In a large bowl, mix together the dry ingredients. Add the wet ingredients in the order listed.  Mix until well incorporated. Pour into prepared dish and place in the oven. In the morning, after the oatmeal has been baking for 50 minutes, insert a toothpick to make sure it is done. When the toothpick comes out clean, remove the oatmeal from the oven and let cool for 15 minutes before serving.